Congressional Research Service

Primary tabs

Pages

Corporate ownership of banks and savings institutions, and interstate banking
Financial developments in the 1980s have resulted in new ownership arrangements for depository financial institutions as well as new forms of interstate deposit-taking arrangements. Considerable interest exists in the pervasiveness of these arrangements. This report provides selected lists of corporate ownership of depository financial institutions and interstate banking in order to suggest the extent to which various forms of innovations have occurred and the firms involved; the listings are not necessarily comprehensive., Abstract -- Introduction -- Ownership of Nonbank Banks - Appendix to Federal Reserve testimony before the Senate Banking Committee, March 27, 1984 -- Interstate Banking by Banks and Thrift Institutions - Excerpts from the American Banker, April 3 and 4, 1984 -- Savings and Loan Holding Companies - Excerpts from the American Banker, November 14, 1983 -- Divestiture Under Various Possible Statutory Changes - Attachment to testimony of the American Bankers Association before a Subcommittee of the House Energy and Commerce Committee, April 5, 1984., F. Jean Wells, Specialist in Money and Banking, Economics Division., CRS 84-105 E, "June 1, 1984.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Corporate tax reform and international competitiveness
Abstract -- Introduction and Summary -- Taxation and International Trade: A Theoretical Background. The Basic Equilibrating Mechanism ; Uniform Product Taxes ; Differential Product Taxes ; Uniform Factor Taxes ; Non-Uniform Factor Taxes -- A Simulation of the Trade Effects of Current Tax Proposals -- Appendix., This study assesses the effects of three tax reform proposals: the Administration's proposal, the House passed bill (H.R. 3838), and a proposal for a business transfer tax made by Senator William V. Roth on international competitiveness. The results suggest that the effects of these proposals will be relatively small and that international competitiveness is not a major issue in evaluating tax proposals., Jane G. Gravelle, Specialist in Industry Analysis and Finance, Economic Division., CRS 86-42 E "February 25, 1986." SuDoc #: LC 14. 18/3
Counting migrant and seasonal farmworkers
The Federal Government currently supports several ... [illegible] farmworkers and their families. Yet, the number ... [illegible], Dennis M. Roth, Specialist in Labor Economics, Economics Division., CRS 85-797 E, "July 26, 1985."
Coverage of state and local governmental employees under fair labor standards act
Vincent E. Treacy, Legislative Attorney, American Law Division, CRS 85-727 A, "April 10, 1985.", SuDoc# 14. 18/3
Credit cards
Credit cards offer an alternative to using checks or cash for payment transactions. Currently there are over 600 million credit cards in circulation. This bibliography lists publications concerning the credit card industry and related subjects., Pauline H. Smale, Economics Analyst and Pamela Hairston, Reference Assistant, Economics Division, CRS 85-682 E, "April 8, 1985.", SuDoc# 14. 18/3
Defense reorganization
This reading list presents information on the Department of Defense, various Defense Department reorganization proposals and considers likely changes in the defense establishment. It includes a section on the Joint Chief of Staff which presents recent assessments of JCS reform efforts., Defense Department: General Materials -- Defense Organization and Reorganization Proposals -- Joint Chiefs of Staff Organization., Sherry B. Shapiro, Senior Bibliographer, Foreign Affairs, Library Services Division, CRS 87-381 L, " April 1987.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Depreciation and the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (PL 99-514)
An important business tax provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 is the new tax depreciation rules for business assets. The effect of the Tax Reform Act's changes was to slow down the rate at which the cost of most assets can be depreciated. Depreciation deductions are thus less valuable to businesses than under prior law. The Act's depreciation changes, along with its repeal of the investment tax credit, also increased the tax burden on depreciable assets compared to other types of investments. While the primary purpose of this report is to describe the changes in depreciation rules and their effects, the report also contains basic information on the rationale for depreciation deductions and how the deductions are calculated., Depreciation in General -- Depreciation Under Prior Law -- Depreciation Under the Tax Reform Act -- Effect of the Tax Reform Act and the Tax Burden on Depreciable Assets -- Appendix. Depreciation Methods ; The Half-Year Convention and Recovery Periods ; Sample Depreciation Calculations Under Prior Law ; Sample Depreciation Calculations under the Tax Reform Act of 1986., David L. Brumbaugh, Analyst in Public Finance, Econmics Division., CRS 87-342 E, "April 16, 1987.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Dislocated workers, involuntary part-time employment, and moonlighting
In recent years, the incidence of people employed part-time who want full-time work and people holding more than one job has risen. One popular belief relates these trends to worker displacement; that is, dislocated workers formerly employed in fairly high-paying, full-time jobs may be "forced" to take part-time jobs or to hold two jobs to earn as much as they had previously. To date, the data do not appear to confirm this association., Abstract -- Dislocated Workers. Basis for a Relationship -- Involuntary Part-Time Employment. Failure to Find Full-Time Work ; Dislocated Workers Hypothesis -- Moonlighting. Dislocated Worker Hypothesis -- Summary and Conclusions., Linda LeGrande, Specialist in Labor Economics, Economics Division, CRS 86-778 E, "October 24, 1986.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Displaced Farmers
Farm population in the U.S., currently about 5.2 million people, continues to decline each year. Data from a 1982 Census Bureau-USDA survey show a loss of 431,000 farm people between 1980 and 1982. This drop corresponds with a continuing pattern of declining farm employment, which has fallen from over 10 million in 1940 to under 4 million currently. The number of farm operators in the U.S. is now estimated at 2,370,000--down from 2,400,000 the previous year. This paper will discuss the changing farm population, focusing on the farm labor force. It will investigate who leaves farming, why they leave, what they do as disemployed farmers, and the implications of their employment shift., Rebecca Mazur, Bibliographer, Environment and Natural Resources, Library Services Division, on Temporary Assignement to the Food and Agriculture Section, Environment and Natural Resources Policy Division., CRS 84-719 L, "August 22, 1984.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Distributing acid rain mitigation costs
CRS 83-584 ENR, "April 22, 1983.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Distributing acid rain mitigation costs
CRS 83-586 ENR, "April 11, 1983.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Distributing the cost of acid rain mitigation
CRS 84-521 ENR, "January 18, 1984.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Distributional effects of the administration tax reform proposal
This report provides estimates, based on disaggregate data, of the distributional effects of the Administration tax reform proposal announced in May 1985. This report is a supplement to CRS report no. 85-159 E., Donald W. Kiefer, Specialist in Public Finance, Economics Division., A supplement to CRS Report No. 85-159 E, Distributional Effects of the Treasury and Administration Tax Reform Proposals, August 9, 1985., CRS 85-992 E, "October 9, 1985.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Drought of 1983
The pages following page 6 of the report are longer, and were reoriented for the Digital Library viewer., Jeffrey Zinn, Specialist, Environment and Natural Resources Policy Division, CRS 83-598 ENR, "October 7, 1983.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Drug abuse prevention and control
The President's budget for fiscal year 1988 asks for a total of $3 billion for Federal programs to prevent or control the use of narcotics and other dangerous drugs. In the form of a table, this CRS report shows budget authority (BA) requested, by agency, as compared with actual BA for FY 1986 and estimated BA for FY 1987. In the case of FY 1987, increased amounts authorized by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 are also indicated, as are appropriations made pursuant to the Act under a separate title of the omnibus appropriations statute for that year, P.L. 99-571. A separate column shows the FY87 budget as proposed to be revised., Harry L. Hogan, Specialist in American National Government, Government Division, CRS 87-160 GOV "February 18, 1987" "Revised February 27, 1987." SuDoc # LC 14. 18/3
Drug and alcohol abuse
The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, P.L. 99-570, authorizes a wide-ranging Federal effort to prevent and control substance abuse. This paper describes the background and development of Federal support for substance abuse education, prevention, and treatment programs and activities, including provisions for such support in P.L. 99-570., Edward Klebe, Analyst in Social Legislation, Education and Public Welfare Division, CRS 86-1052 EPW "December 18, 1986." SuDoc # LC 14. 18/3
Drunk driving
This Editorial Commentary includes editorials on the problem of drunk driving in the United States selected from 100 newspapers monitored by the Congressional Research Service. The Commentary is divided into four sections focusing on different aspects of the problem. The first section concentrates on general commentary on drunk driving, the second laws and legislative efforts, the third roadblocks and their legality, and the final one the elimination of "happy hours" at bars. The editorials are arranged chronologically within each section., Abstract -- Contents -- General -- Laws and Legislative Efforts -- Roadblocks -- Bars and "Happy Hours.", Marsha K. Cerny, Senior Bibliographer, Education and Public Welfare, Library Services Division, CRS 84-830 L, "December 21, 1984.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
EDB and the agriculture community
EDB is being removed from major agricultural uses because of concerns about possible adverse effects on human health. Regulatory actions to remove EDB from the food system will have impacts on the agricultural community. Uses of EDB in agriculture, regulatory actions to remove EDB from the food system quickly, and possible impacts of those regulatory actions on domestic and international markets are discussed., Jeffrey Zinn, Specialist in Natural Resources Policy Division., CRS 84-545 ENR, "February 9, 1984.", "Updated March 19, 1984.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Economic growth and changing labor markets
Specific groups in the Nation's work force experience employment difficulties even in good economic times. The Labor Section of the Economics Division in the Congressional Research Service in analyzing labor market problems of these groups which include youth, women, older workers, adult nonwhites, Hispanics, and dislocated workers. This overview report summarizes the principal labor market characteristics and problems of these groups. A separate report focusing on dislocated workers is available and individual reports on other groups are in preparation., Introduction -- Youth -- Women -- Adult Nonwhites -- Hispanics -- Older Workers -- Dislocated Workers -- Geographical and Skill Mismatch -- Education and Work., CRS 83-631 E, "December 19, 1983.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Economic policy book reviews published since winter 1983-1984
Economic Policy Book Reviews is a collection of full length critical reviews of books discussing economic policy. The reviews consist of all those appearing in thirty sources from winter 1983-1984 to November 1984. The sources examined for reviews include newspapers, popular business magazines, economics journals, and political science journals that review books of economic policy interest., CRS 84-798 L, "November 1984.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Economics book reviews
CRS 86-755 L, "June 1986.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Educational attainment of select groups of "at risk" children and youth
This paper focuses on three select groups of children and youth who appear to be "at risk" for depressed educational attainment - those from single-parent families, those from persistently poor families, and those who give birth during their teenage years. It addresses three basic questions: (1) Are these groups of children and youth at risk of depressed educational attainment? (2) How might these characteristics lead to depressed educational attainment? (3) What implications does the current research have for examining Federal responses to the educational needs of these children and youth?, Abstract -- Introduction -- Analytical Summary -- Public Policy and the Education of "At Risk" Children and Youth -- Educational Attainment -- Children from Single-Parent Families. Summary of Findings ; Statistical Overview ; Educational Attainment and Performance -- Children from Persistently Poor Families ; Summary of Findings ; Statistical Overview ; Educational Attainment and Performance -- Childbearing Teenagers. Summary of Findings ; Statistical Overview ; Educational Attainment and Performance -- Conclusion -- Appendix A: Technical Note., James B. Stedman, Specialist in Education, Education and Public Welfare Division, CRS 87-290 EPW, "April 1, 1987.", SuDoc# 14. 18/3
Effect of the General Education Procedures Act contingent extension provision upon current Higher Education Act programs
This report provides a legal analysis of certain questions regarding the effect of the contingent extension provision of the General Education Procedures Act (GEPA), 20 U.S.C $ 1226a, upon current Higher Education Act programs. The specific question which has been raised concerns the application of the two year authorization extension portion of the GEPA contingent extension provision to those Higher Education Act programs which are forward-funded and whose authorization of appropriations expired at the end of the fiscal year 1985. The Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, 20 U.S.C. $ 1001 et seq., sets forth various programs of financial assistance to institution of higher education and to students of such institutions. Funding for such programs is accomplished through the appropriations process in several ways. Some Higher Education Act programs, such as Pell Grant, 20 U.S.C. $ 1070(a), and Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants, 20 U.S.C. $ 1070b et seq., are forward-funded. Other Higher Education Act programs, such as the Endowment Grants program, 20 U.S.C. $ 1065a, are current year funded. And, the Endowment Guaranteed Student Loan Program, 20 U.S.C. $ 1071 et seq., is an example of a Higher Education Act program which is funded on a "no year" basis, i.e., appropriated funds are available in the year of appropriation and remain available until expended., Kathleen S. Swendiman, Legislative Attorney, American Law Division., CRS 86-618 A, "February 10, 1986.", SuDoc# 14. 18/3
Effective tax rates in the administration and ways and means tax proposals updated tables
On September 26, 1985 tax reform proposals for use in mark up in the Committee on Ways and Means were announced. The Administration has also proposed some changes in its May 28, 1985 tax reform, including the elimination of indexing of inventories. This report updates effective tax rates in "Effects of Business Tax Provisions in the Administration's Tax Proposal," Congressional Research Service Report No. 85-783 E, June 6, 1985 to incorporate these proposals., Jane G. Gravelle, Specialist in Industry Analysis and Finance, Economics Division, CRS 85-1006E "October 17, 1985." SuDoc # 14. 18/3
Election campaigns
This annotated bibliography of books and articles covers election campaign management, political consultants, use of the media by candidates, and press coverage of election campaigns. It includes selected material dating from 1972., CRS 84-567 L, "March 19, 1984.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Employees group health insurance benefits continuation
Vincent E. Treacy, Legislative Attorney, American Law Division, CRS 87-196 A "July 11, 1986" "Updated February 20, 1987." SuDoc # LC 14. 18/3
Employment and labor
The microthesaurus is a compilation of terms from the Legislative Indexing Vocabulary on employment and labor. While it does not include specific occupations, selected occupational groups are included. These terms may be used in searching the CRS Bibliographic Data Base, the Bill Digest files, and the Major Issues System on SCORPIO., Shirley Loo, Specialist in Information Control and Automated Systems, Library Sciences Division, CRS 85-1028 L, "October 30, 1985.", SuDoc# 14. 18/3
Employment discrimination and the United States Congress
Rita Ann Reimer, Legislative Attorney, American Law Division., CRS 85-890 A, "July 19, 1985.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Environmental block grants
Summary -- Background - Grants for Environmental Protection -- The President's Current Proposal -- Intergovernmental Relations and Recent Block Grant Experience -- Previous Environmental Block Grant Proposal -- Reactions to the Current Environmental Block Grant Proposal. Flexibility ; Funding -- Conclusion: Some Winners and Losers -- Table 1. EPA Assistance to States, FY81 to FY 87 Request -- Table 2. Proposed Environmental Block Grant Funding Summary -- Appendix 1. Current State Environmental Grants., Claudia Copeland, Specialist in Environmental Policy, Environment and Natural Resources Policy Division., CRS 86-561 ENR "February 18, 1986." SuDoc # LC 14. 18/3
Environmental protection issues of the 99th Congress
John E. Blodgett, Claudia Copeland, Specialists; James Aidala, Donald Feliciano, Maria Grimes, Joan Hartmann, Martin Lee, Mark Reisch, Analysts, Environment and Natural Resources Policy Division, CRS 85-517 ENR, "January 1985.", SuDoc# 14. 18/3
Espionage at the Moscow embassy
CRS 87-371 L, "April 24, 1987.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Estimated effects on Chapter 1, Education Consolidation and Improvement Act,...
In its proposed amendments to the Federal program for the education of disadvantaged childrem, under chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act, the Reagan Administration has recommended that a 2 percent "absorption factor" be applied to the allocation of funds. Thus, children counted for the distribution of basic grants would be considered only to the extent that they exceed 2 percent of a county's total school-age population. This report provides an analysis of the effects of this proposed formula change., Wayne Riddle, Specialist in Education Finance, Education and Public Welfare Division, CRS 87-188 EPW "March 6, 1987." SuDoc # LC 14. 18/3
Estimated impact aid payments under section 3 of P.L. 81-874
Section 3 of P.L. 81-874 authorizes financial assistance for school maintenance and operations to school districts in areas where enrollments and local revenues are adversely affected by Federal activities. The adverse Federal effects may be that Federal ownership of property within the school district reduces local tax income for school purposes, or that a Federal activity causes an influx of persons into the community, resulting in an increased number of children to be educated. This report compares the estimated FY 1988 section 3 payments under the Administration's FY 1988 budget proposal with the estimated FY 1987 section 3 payments under current law (P.L. 99-500)., Abstract -- Introduction. Funding Level ; Administration's Proposed FY 1988 Distribution Formula ; Comparative Analysis of Current Law and FY 1988 Budget Allocations ; Local School District Comparisons ; State Comparisons., Rick Holland, Analyst in Education, Education and Public Welfare Division, CRS 87-307 EPW, "April 8, 1987.", SuDoc# 14. 18/3
Ethylene dibromide
Since the Fall of 1983, there has been heightened public concern about the possible health effects of ethylene dibromide (EDB), a chemical which has caused cancer in laboratory animals. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) banned the pesticidal use of EDB for oil fumigation in September 1983 after discovering that EDB could migrate into groundwater supplies. In December 1983 that State of Florida stopped the sale of food products which contained any detectable levels of EDB, since no Federally approved safe levels had ever been established. In February and March of 1984 EPA banned most other pesticidal uses of EDB, and recommended certain residue levels as a guide to state actions. Since that time, some of the controversy has quieted. This paper addresses the background of EDB, its uses, and EPA's regulatory proposals and actions., James V. Aidala, Analyst, Environment and Natural Resources Policy Division., CRS 84-591 ENR, "February 8, 1984.", "Revised March 27, 1984.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Ethylene dibromide
Much attention has recently been focused on the chemical ethylene dibromide (EDB). This chemical has been widely used in leaded gasoline, and has also been used to treat grains, citrus, and other crops. It has been found in foods and in groundwater. This paper examines the possible health effects of exposure to EDB, as well as its regulation. The possible health effects and regulation of various chemical and physical alternatives to EDB are also examined. This paper concludes with some policy considerations pertinent to EDB., Abstract -- Introduction -- Chemical and Physical Properties of EDB -- Use -- History of Research and Regulation -- Health Effects of EDB. Acute Effects ; Long-Term Effects -- Human Exposure to EDB. Occupational ; Nonoccupational ; Drinking Water ; Leaded Gasoline ; Food -- Alternatives to EDB -- Policy Questions., Michael M. Simpson, Analyst in Life Sciences, Science Policy Research Division., CRS 84-622 SPR, "May 3, 1984.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Ethylene dibromide
Much attention has recently been focused on the chemical ethylene dibromide (EDB). This chemical has been widely used in leaded gasoline, and has also been used to treat grains, citrus and other crops. It has been found in foods and in groundwater. This paper examines the possible health effects of exposure to EDB, as well as its regulation. The possible health effects and regulation of various chemical and physical alternatives to EDB are also examined. This paper concludes with some policy considerations pertinent to EDB., Abstract -- Introduction -- Health Effects of EDB -- Acute Effects -- Health Effects of Alternatives to EDB -- Acute Effects. Carbon Disulfide ; Carbon Tetrachloride ; Ethylene Dichloride ; Methyl Bromide -- Long-term Effects. Carbon Disulfide ; Carbon Tetrachloride ; Ethylene Dichloride ; Methyl Bromide -- Standards -- Points for Further Consideration., Michael M. Simpson, Analyst in Life Sciences, Science Policy Research Division., CRS 84-518 SPR, "January 26, 1984.", "Updated February 15, 1984.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Examination of farm commodity promotion programs
Representatives of a number of commodity groups have asked Congress in recent years for statutory authority to establish national generic promotion programs for their products. A key feature is a mandatory assessment paid by all producers to support such activities. Federal legislation has authorized nine such national promotion programs, and lawmakers now are considering whether to create new initiatives for beef, pork, and watermelons. Critics believe that such programs represent unwarranted Government interference, pit one commodity group against another for limited consumer dollars, and lack adequate evidence of success. Proponents, on the other hand, contend that the programs do work, cost the Federal Government virtually nothing, and benefit producers and consumers alike. This report discusses programs that have already been enacted by Congress and examines their records to date., Introduction -- Background -- Congressional Involvement -- Notes on Individual Boards. Cotton ; Potatoes ; Eggs ; Beef ; Wheat ; Floraboard ; Dairy ; Honey -- Proposed Legislation. Beef ; Pork ; Watermelons -- How Effective are the Programs?. Study Trends and Research Needs ; Refund Rates ; Consumption and Exports ; Other Policy Concerns -- Are Promotion Programs Worth Promoting?. AMS Guidelines., Geoffrey S. Becker, Analyst, Environment and Natural Resources Policy Division., CRS 85-995 ENR, "March 22, 1984.", "Revised September 30, 1985.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Excepted hiring within certain offices of the Department of Education, as proposed by H.R. 2246 and S. 1965, 99th Congress
Michael V. Seitzinger, Legislative Attorney, American Law Division., CRS 86-804 A, "July 8, 1986.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Existing housing resources vs. need
Using data from the 1982 and 1983 Metropolitan Area tapes of the Annual Housing Survey, this study uses simulated moves of households to determine whether the supply of standard quality vacant rental units is sufficient to rehouse renter families living in unsatisfactory housing, when household size and number of bedrooms are considered. The study found that no housing market area had a sufficient supply, although the extent of the deficiency varies greatly. Less than half the variance was explained by differences in vacancy rates. The findings confirm the need to consider the characteristics of both the housing stock, and the households in unsatisfactory housing in the diverse local housing areas throughout the country when determining national housing policy., Summary of Results -- A Brief Overview of the Study Process -- Limitations of the Results -- Description of Geographic Areas. Sufficiency of Vacant Units, Disregarding Household Size -- Results of the Simulation. Households Least Able to be Rehoused ; Units Remaining Vacant after Household Moves ; Relation Between Vacancy Rate and Ability to Find Housing -- Considering Rent-Paying Ability and Asking Rent -- Estimates of Subsidy Amounts -- Conclusion -- Selected References -- Appendix A: Simulation Tables -- Appendix B: Definition of Inadequate Housing -- Appendix C: Simulation Method., Grace Milgram, Specialist in Housing, Economics Division, and Robert Bury, Computer Systems Analyst, Automated Information Services., CRS 87-81 E, "January 30, 1987.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3
Explanation of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985--Public Law 99-177 (The Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act)
This report explains briefly the major features of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-177), commonly referred to as the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act. Following a short overview of the deficit of fiscal years 1987-1991 (and the accelerated timetable for fiscal year 1986), compute the required spending reductions, and summarizes the sequestration exempted from emergency deficit reduction procedures and those that have special rules for making reductions., Abstract -- Overview of the Deficit Reduction Process -- Maximum Deficit Levels -- Modified Procedures for Fiscal Year 1986 - Deficit Control Timetable -- Elimination of Excess Deficits -- Computing the Reduction -- Sequestration of Funds for Fiscal Year 1986 -- Suspension of Deficit Reduction Requirements in Recessions -- Judicial Review and Fallback Procedures -- Programs Exempted from Sequestration -- Programs with Percentage Limits on Reductions -- Programs with Special Cutback Rules -- Modifications in the Federal Budget Process., Allen Schick, Consultant., CRS 85-1130 GOV, "December 1985.", "Revised February 1986.", SuDoc# LC 14. 18/3

Pages